Definition psychology of motivation and its general characteristics
Motivation is one of the most complex and, at the same time, deserving special attention problems because it is directly related to the study of human activity source search, the impelling force by which carried out any activity that defines the direction of human behavior.
Motivation is the basis of the life of all living beings. We can see it in the motives that cause the body’s activity and definition its orientation. That is the motivation represents certain energy system, which tends to discharge, to the satisfaction of motives and the needs that make up the essence of motivation.
At the same time demand from the point of view of psychology, we see as a state of the body, experiencing the need for facilities required for its existence and development. Motive – as a force impelling towards these objects. Usually, these two concepts are not separate in the structure of the need-motivational sphere, because the needs of accumulating energy and motivates to action, directing the activity of a particular purpose.
The definition psychology of motivation is one of the fundamental problems of domestic and foreign psychology. Importance for the development of modern psychology, we connect with the analysis of human activity sources which driving forces of its activity and behavior. The answer to the question of what motivates people to work, what is the motive, “for which” he carries it, is the basis for its adequate interpretation.
“When people communicate with each other … then, first of all, raises the question of motives, motives that pushed them to such contact with other people, as well as to those who with greater or lesser awareness, they set themselves”. In the most general terms, the motive is what defines stimulates, motivates a person to commit any act included in the activities defined by this motive.
It is important to emphasize that the basic methodological principles of definition psychology of motivation is the position of the unity of the dynamic (energy) and the semantic content-party motivation. Active development of this principle connected with the study of such issues as a system of human relations, the relation of meaning and values, integration motives and semantic context, personal orientation, and dynamics of behavior, orientation in activities, etc.
In domestic psychology after the revolution also made attempts to formulate and solve the issues of human motivation. Selecting types motives and their classification depend on how researchers understand the essence of the motive.
The most fully developed and brought to completion, in our opinion, is the theory of the origin of the activity of definition psychology of motivation sphere of the person proposed by A.N Leontief. According to this theory are the two leading groups of motives: sense-and motive-stimuli. Leontiev wrote: “… among the motives prompting the activities at the same time give it a personal meaning; we call them the sense of forming motives. Other co-existing with them, acting as disincentives (positive or negative), – at times sharply emotional, affective, – devoid of meaning functions; we will conditionally call them motives incentives …
Semantic motives always occupy a higher hierarchical position, even if they have no direct effect of the genetic “. Thus, if the motives regarded as a significant stimulus for the individual to action, activity, given the division motives, not only exists but is an important position in the theory of motivation.
According to psychological criteria distinguish 3 classes of motivating factors: 1. The needs and instincts as a source of mental activity; 2. The motives that determine the orientation of behavior, activities; 3. Emotions are subjective experiences (aspirations, desires, etc.) and the installation carrying out the regulation of behavior.
In the formation of human activity involves multiple motives, one of which is a leading and the rest – subordinate, secondary, which may play a role in its further stimulation.
Leading motives define a subjective personal sense of human activity. Simultaneous coexistence in the activities of several motives characterized by a complex relationship, between them – antagonistic and synergistic. An explanation of his actions and deeds motives, significantly differ from motivation.
The psychology of motivation in the achievement (motivation to succeed) – one of the varieties of motivation activities related to the needs of the individual to achieve success and avoid failure; the pursuit of success in various activities. It is based on the emotional distress associated with the adoption of social progress attained by the individual. Since initially prevailed definition achievement motive as “striving to improve the level of self-empowerment” does not explain certain features of the development have been introduced specific motivational variables that establish the relationship between the activity and motivation to achieve:
1) Personal standards – subjective assessment of the likelihood of success, the subjective difficulty of the task, etc .;
2) Attractiveness of self – attractiveness for individual personal success or failure in this activity;
3) The individual preferences such as attribution – the attribution of responsibility for the success or failure of itself or the circumstances.
At the age of three – five years stronger and focused on the success of achievement motivation develops when success is encouraged and praised located the parents or caregivers.
Understanding the motives which impel a person to be active, you can purposefully influence their behavior and activity. Analysis and actualization of motifs are important for the governance. A head teacher, a coach, who can activate the other, reach, as a rule, considerable success.
The teacher, knowing what motives contribute to the involvement of children in school, can enhance the action of some and weaken the effects of other (unwanted) motifs;
The coach, guided in the motivational field athlete can step up at some point, to enhance the effect of certain motifs and thus increase the activity and the success of its activities;
The manager, employing the motives of his subordinates, mobilizing them to achieve a common goal.
Relying on the action only financial incentive (money) should not be. Money – it is a significant motivational factor (stimulus to activity), but do not neglect other equally important sources of activity, because the desire for self-development and self-assertion, interest in the content and process of the work – and effective theme activities and updating them is able to ensure the success.